Applications

Live cell labeling

Any cell can be labeled as seen in the image to the right with six different examples such as:

  • Red blood cells
  • Virions
  • Sperm

In vivo cell tracking

FLRO4 bone marrow kodecytes in Zebrafish

The time lapse shows stills from a video of kodecytes circulating in a Zebrafish.

The kodecytes were able to be observed as they were biodistributed.

Adhesion

Bio-ink

All FSL constructs disperse in water and are therefore compatible with inkjet printers. FSL constructs can be printed with a standard desktop inkjet printer directly onto paper to create immunoassays. An empty ink cartridge is filled with an FSL construct and words, barcodes, or graphics are printed. A Perspex template is adhered to the surface to create reaction wells. The method is then a standard EIA procedure, but blocking of serum is not required and undiluted serum can be used.

A typical procedure is as follows: add serum, incubate, wash by immersion, add secondary EIA conjugate, incubate, wash, add NBT/BCIP precipitating substrate and stop the reaction when developed by washing. The end result is stable for years.

Almost any surface

This image above is a typical example of an inkjet printed EIA where 12 different FSL constructs were printed as identifying codes on paper and then reacted against different samples. The antibody activity in the samples can be identified by appearance of words identifying the target antigen. The image on the right is printed on numerous surfaces

Enzyme Immunoassays

Usually enzyme immunoassays rely on the random attachment of antigens (usually recombinant proteins) onto a surface. This is not an ideal as the orientation of the antigen is uncontrolled and the exposure of the antigen is hindered by its physical attachment to the surface.

In contrast, Kode™ Technology relies on its surface coating characteristics to present the antigen away from the solid surface. Kode™ presented biomarkers often result in increased specificity and sensitivity.